DC Wire – Types, Size Chart, and Fusing

One of the things that can get confusing, but is extremely important, is knowing what size of wire to use when working with DC circuits. And once you get the wire size figured out…then trying to figure out what size fuse should you use.

So I’ve included a wire sizing chart at the bottom of the page for you to download. And I will provide a couple of tips as well. Finally, I will provide a link to a great little sizing and fusing calculator that I think makes everything much easier when trying to calculate all of this. But first, some good information to know…Also, it is important to note that when dealing with DC currents in solar power systems (SPS) you need a high-quality wire with a good insulation rating; 105 degrees centigrade is commonly referred to as the standard. Voltage rating should be “600V”. Also, stranded wire is best when using wire in the DC side of SPSs…the more strands the better. But, a good measure would be as follows, with each strand being 30AWG wire…

6AWG – 260 strands
4AWG – 364 strands
2AWG – 624 strands
1AWG – 767 strands
1/0 – 975 strands
2/0 – 1196 strands
3/0 – 1547 strands
4/0 – 1950 strands

Most wire wire/cable will come with rubber or rubber-based insulation. Silicone-based wire insulation is generally considered superior to rubber-based wire insulation for a number of reasons, one being a higher heat rating, up to 200 degrees centigrade. Silicone is the most fire-resistant of common insulation material, it is also highly resistant to extreme environments. Then we also see silicone as being more flexible and more compression resistant. And yes, silicone is more suitable for outdoor applications, but when running wire outdoors it’s always best placed inside a protective conduit.

Aluminum wire should not be used…period. Copper wire is the standard for DC applications due to its high electrical conductivity. However, there is even better wire than standard copper wire, tin-plated stranded copper wire. Tin-plated copper wire is noted for its longevity because of its anti-corrosion properties. And, studies show that this variety of copper wiring is able to withstand adverse weather conditions and end up lasting far longer than the standard copper wires. It’s also preferred in applications where the wire will be exposed to a high degree of humidity. And lastly, tin-plated copper wire has more electrical conductivity as compared to other varieties of copper wires. And yes, it is more expensive.

Here is a little tip for you…up-size wire recommendations one size. Yup, look up the recommended wire size…then go with one size larger. This gives you a measure of safety when deciding on your wiring. Better to have a wire/cable one size too large than one size too small. One size too small can result in more resistance and potentially melting the wire itself. And obviously, if you melt wire it is a bad thing, a very band thing…which could result in a fire.

And that brings me to another tidbit of information that should be, will be, important to you…protecting your wire from over-current. The reason you protect your wire from over-current to prevent melting wire/cable and the possibility of fire is plain and obvious. So you put a fuse in the circuit.

Quality equipment manufacturers (Tier 1 companies) will provide fusing and/or circuit breakers internally to the equipment to protect that equipment. It is the installer’s responsibility to protect the wire connecting the equipment with fuses and/or circuit breakers.

Looking at a fuse and its job is pretty simple…the job of the fuse is to melt its wire or plate element at a lower current (amperage) than the wire can handle. That breaks the circuit and stops the flow of electricity. If the fuse is rated for a higher current than the wire, then the wire become the fuse by failing before the fuse blows.

Here’s an example: 1AWG wire is rated to handle 150amps at a total circuit of under 15′ (up-sized one size). Now, if you wanted to protect that wire from failure and put a 200amp fuse in the circuit…the wire would theoretically fail at 150amps before the fuse “blew” (a.k.a. opened) at 200amps.

To avoid this problem in our example you would use a fuse of slightly less that 200amps…say 125 – 150amps. That way the fuse would do its job before the wire failed and caused a potentially serious problem.

And here is another thing to consider when deciding on the correct fuse to use…its different ratings. So take a 125amp/58v BF-2 fuse from Littelfuse. It is rated at 125amps, yes? But does that mean it will blow as soon as the current hits 126amps? No. If you review the chart that accompanies the fuse you will see it will maintain integrity for different lengths of time at different currents (amps).

At 100% of rating, in this case 125amps, the fuse will maintain integrity for 4 hours. If the current rises to 135% of its rating (169amps) the fuse will still be good for approximately 2 minuets before it opens/blows. At 200% of its rating (250amps) it will open/blow at about the 1 second mark. And at 750amps it will open/blow at about 1/10th of a second. So before you decide on the right fuse looks closely at its ratings.

In our 1AWG, 200amp wire circuit at a full 200amps of current, the 125amp fuse would blow in 2 – 3 seconds

Also, notice the fuse description in the example, “125amp/58v”, that means it is rated for 125amps only up to 58volts. Meaning, if you try to employ it in a circuit above 58v it will not function correctly…as in fail.

What???  And why is it rated at 58v, sounds strange, eh? That fuse is designed for 48volt solar power systems. So why the larger than 48 voltage rating? Remember that solar power system voltages can run as high as 56 – 58 volts +/- coming out of the MPPT charge controller.

Now, let’s return to the wire insulation rating. Remember I mentioned that wire should have at least a rating of 105 degrees centigrade? That means 220 degrees Fahrenheit. That is above boiling temperature of water before it fails. Silicone insulation can handle almost 400 degrees Fahrenheit before failure. So you can see one of the obvious benefits to silicone wire insulation. Now, that being said…if you are building a circuit counting on silicone’s ability to handle almost double the temps vs rubber-based insulation…you are building the circuit in dangerous country. Consider redesigning the circuit more for safety.

And there is one really misunderstood aspect of deciding on wire/cable size…the distance or length of the actual wire run. Most folks will look at the circuit and say there is 5′ between the pieces of equipment and then use that to choose the wire/cable size. WRONG!! You use the total distance of the run…round trip. The circuit is the round trip of the current. So 5′ between equipment is a 10′ distance/length.

OK, so here is the long awaited chart with one note before the displaying it…when looking at the “circuit type” use “Critical” and “3% voltage drop” and when looking at the distance, the distance is the maximum run. So when you see 15′, that means up to 15′ round trip. Notice the “round trip”…that means the wire going to AND from the two devices.

( This is a very large graphic chart. Click to enlarge or you can download it as well. )

< click here to download the DC Wire Selection Chart in PDF file format >

“Voltage drop”…don’t worry about it…just use “3%” when using the chart. But if you really want to know…voltage drop is the amount of voltage will be lost through “resistance” in the wire. Meaning the lower the quality of the wire, the more resistance, the more voltage drop, resulting in less energy being moved from one device to another. Yes, that is a bad thing, it’s a waste of energy. That is the reason to correctly size wire…to efficiently move current/power through the wire.

Now, let’s talk about the wire sizing and fusing calculator that is found on the “explorist.life” website. I like it…I like it a lot! You input the “amps”, the “voltage”, and the round trip length between the devices…then it shows you the recommended size of wire/cable to use to safely and efficiently carry that current. I like to reduce the “voltage drop” to 1.5% when using the calculator. That gives an extra margin of safety and efficiency.

There is also an option “Show Fuse Sizing Recommendations ” it gives you a great bunch of fuse information; 1)Minimum Fuse Size, 2) Recommended Fuse Size, 3) Max Wire Capacity, 4) Max Fuse Size. That is great, and critical, information to help guide you through making those design decisions. But again, I like to up-size the wire/cable one size just to be safe…and it allows for a little system expansion should the need arise.

The calculator link is https://www.explorist.life/wire-sizing-calculator/

And yes, https://www.explorist.life, run by Nate Yarbrough, has a lot of great information for you if you care to look around, including some very good videos.

TakeAways –
  • Use high quality, well insulated, stranded wire in DC circuits.
  • Up-size the wire by one size.
  • Use the right chart and/or calculator to determine the correct fuse size.
  • Ensure that the fuse rating(s) always are lower than the wire rating.
  • If you don’t understand all of this…then you shouldn’t be doing it yourself.

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TRAP: Solar Information Sources

So I have been doing extensive research on off-grid solar systems because I will be upgrading our system after Thanksgiving. I am adding more solar panels, a 2nd charge controller, and a 2nd inverter. Along with that a general upgrade replacing some fuses and switches with circuit breakers, plus up-sizing some wiring. And to make sure I was/am on track I am seeking out information from reliable, expert, professional sources such as the manufacturers themselves, installation engineers, etc. Oh boy, I was  surprised, disappointed, and a bit disgusted in what else I found.

Along the way I came across a whole bunch of folks, most of whom have YouTube channels, that are putting out some horrible, terrible, and potentially dangerous information. I mean some really, really bad content that on the surface sounds fine, but when compared to factual technical information is…well, pure junk. One of the problems I saw was mis/dis information about manufactures.

Let me start off by saying this…I’ve been building solar projects for over 10 years now. And, after my initial 24volt residential off-grid build here at the glamstead I realized I was working with 10-year old technology centered around lead-acid batteries. Seeing the problem rather quickly I started the first up-grade to 48v LifePo4 batteries, new inverter, etc. As I was doing the upgrade I asked the local solar dealer to ensure I had top-quality, Tier 1 equipment that I wouldn’t have to worry about. He provided Victron Energy equipment. I am so glad he did. But, back to the problem of mis/dis information about manufactures.

Part of my overall research was ensuring that Victron equipment was top-of-the-line stuff. During the research I found the real problems were far and few between. The performance problems came from under-powering the equipment itself…too small of a battery bank, too small of an inverter, too few solar panels, etc. So it was more of a system design problem than an equipment quality problem. There were two problems I found on the Internet that were serious…one inverter catching fire and one MPPT charge controller burning out. In both cases it was a wiring issue. The MPPT had a bad wire connection in the battery + wire connection inside the MPPT…installer fault. The inverter fire came from another bad wire connection inside the inverter with the battery + wire. Both times the wire wasn’t properly prepared or correctly connected to the equipment. Interesting to note…Victron did a warranty replacement on both. So the equipment was fine, the installers messed up.

Well, let’s wrap this up…a lot, most, much, of the solar information on the Internet, especially YouTube, is pure crap. It is misleading, poorly written, poorly produced, mostly DIYs, and overall just bad info. There are lots of sources out there with great information…but it can be had to sort that info from the junk info.

So Beware!

I am really concerned for folks who are doing a residential solar DIY project. This is especially true when someone is attempting a whole house, grid-tied, any system that is 48v, or any system with lithium batteries.


I don’t want to see anyone burn down their house, run afoul of their local utility company, get electrocuted with high-voltage / high-ampere system, or blow up or start a fire with a lithium battery.

So please go with only the best quality information sources, stay away from “garage experts”, and verify all information with manufactures before implementation. That is especially true with “hacks”, “shortcuts”, or “huge savings” promoting information….as well as any equipment engineered in China.

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Our Glamstead Solar System

Here we go…I was asked to supply the info and diagram of our solar system. I hope this can be of use to folks who are thinking about going off-grid or grid-tied.

After working through the numbers I felt a 4kw – 5kw inverter would handle our needs. Yeah, I maybe didn’t get it right…thought it would meet our needs.

Later I thought about adding electric baseboard heaters…right after I figured out we needed air conditioning. So be careful on how you calculate your electric needs…then add 40 – 50%.

So here are “jpgs” for each part…

Here is the link for a PDF file of the whole thing…

< click here for Glamstead Solar Sytem PDF file >



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TIP: Prepping for Electrical Issues

This is actually a sub-article to a larger project article and it includes some items from previous articles. However, I think there is a solid case for writing this article as a stand-alone. Wow…mouthful of word salad!

So there I was…time to finally upgrade my water well system to a solar pump water well system. You can read more about it here <click here to read about it>. It came time to do my wire splicing…and that is where this article came from.

During an emergency, disaster, or grid-down event you may find yourself having to do some electrical work. And if you find yourself having to do some splicing it would be nice to have the needed supplies on hand. Here are a couple of things that I feel could be invaluable in those situations.

Let’s start with the basics…Electrical Tape –

Not all electrical tape is created equal. And let’s start this off with a general statement…you get what you pay for. That means I buy Scotch brand electrical tape, or private label electrical tape made by Scotch. I don’t buy the knock-offs or the cheap stuff. Why? Because I am entrusting personal safety and/or my house and/or my equipment to this electrical tape…I don’t want cheap-junk vs expensive-quality. Nice thing is…the quality stuff isn’t really that much more expensive.

I keep three basic types of electrical tape on hand; 1) Scotch 700, 2) Scotch 2242, 3) Ace 30986.

Scotch 700: A high quality, vinyl insulating tape. Resists a wide range of chemicals and abrasive materials. Can be used indoor/outdoor and even below ground. And a roll has about 66’ on it. It is good down to about 15 degrees or so. Pretty much a general purpose electrical tape that I would use where the tape is not exposed directly to the weather and not exposed to moisture…so basically dry indoors. Don’t over stretch this tape when using.


Scotch 2242: A high quality general purpose rubber tape. Used correctly it provides an immediate moisture resistant seal as well as insulation. This is a great weather resistant electrical tape. Stretching doesn’t really affect this tape. Since it is made out of rubber it is pretty dang resistant to abrasion. It is good down to about 0 degrees. A bit more expensive and only 15’ on the roll. This what I would use when the job was exposed to the weather or on my equipment (i.e. tractor) used outside.


Ace 30986: Self-fusing, water-tight, rubber based electrical tape. It seals based on a rubber resin, “vulcanized” as my electrician buddy explained it to me. It is pricey but well worth the money when a water-tight seal is needed. This is the tape I used to protect the splices on my well pump installation. Yes, that means the splice was submerged in water…and will be for years to come. I used multiple layers, medium stretch, pressed together hard.


I also keep two types of Gardner Bender Liquid Tape on hand; 1) the brush on variety, 2) spray on version.

Brush on version (GB LTB-400): It’s a rubber based brush on electrical sealant. It can be sued indoors/outdoors and creates a waterproof seal when used correctly. It’s also very UV resistant which is nice here in Arizona. It is resistant to chemicals, solvents, and saltwater. It is dry in 5 minutes, fully cured in 24 hours. Can be used in harsh temperature conditions…30 degrees below zero to 200 degrees above zero. And it stays pretty dang flexible. I like it when I use butt connectors and want to make a water tight seal around them.  If I wanted a really good, virtually fool-proof water tight seal I would use the Ace 30986, then use two coats of GB LTB-400 allowing 24 hours between coats. First coat of GB LTB-400 would overlap the Ace 30986 tape ends. Then the second coat of GB LTB-400 would overlap the first coat of GB LTB-400. WARNING: don’t think an opened container of the GB LTB-400 will be acceptable for storing! Once opened it tends to dry out. Store a brand new, unopened container.

Spray on version (GB LTS-400): This is kinda like the brush on version, but not entirely. This stuff is vinyl based vs rubber based and is much thinner obviously since it is sprayed on. Yes, you can spray on multiple coats to build up the thickness. It dries quickly (5 minutes) and is fully cured in 24 hours. It is very protective and insulating but I would not count on it being water-tight with a single application, more like water-resistant. Water-tight if you build up multiple, correctly applied layers, each of which is allowed to properly cure. Can be sued indoors/outdoors and a temperature range of 30 degrees below zero to 200 degrees above zero and resistant to chemicals, solvents, and saltwater.

So there you go…there is my electrical prepper kit for electrical work.

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2021 Solar System Configuration

I received a couple requests for more information on the solar system design I mentioned in two earlier posts regarding some of the equipment.

So I have attached a PDF file that shows the design in detail, the reasoning for the equipment, and how it all works together.

Let me know if you have any other questions.

<click here to view/download the solar system PDF file>

Send me your thoughts, ideas, comments, questions, and concerns…



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TRAP: FNS / Sacred Sun LifePo4 3U & 5U Solar Batteries

This is a continuation of my post yesterday about Growatt SPF inverter/chargers. Why? They have the same Chinese parent company (FNS) and share a common problem.

So let me start off with a compliment to the company and what they are trying to accomplish. As I understand it FNS was a battery company located in China. They then bought an inverter manufacturer also located in China. I think that is a great concept…a single company that makes the inverter/charger side of a solar system and also the batteries. Makes perfect sense…the system is better suited to work together, the components are compatible, and the inverter/charger is able to communicate with the LifePo4 battery BMS (battery management system) making it more efficient.

Last summer when a neighbor had to upgrade his solar system he asked me to handle it for him. No problem, I like helping neighbors and I do pretty decently with solar systems. Yes, he saw my system that I built and had confidence in me I could build him a good system as well.

In the market place today, and yesterday, there has always been great charge controllers and inverters. I am partial to Victron. The problem for several years now has been reliable, decent quality, lithium batteries that are priced affordably. In 2019 I started that quest for good LifePo4 batteries that I could afford…that is a story for another day. For my neighbor I had no idea what brand of batteries would fit the requirements; reliable, decent quality, and affordable. Off to visit my buddy who owns a solar company.

He had just brought on a new line of equipment…FNS. He explained the FNS inverter/charger and battery relationship. Sounded right…and they met the system requirements and they were very affordable.

I put together a plan for a 6kw, 240vAC, 400Ah, 4.8kw of PVs system that also included an FNS battery cabinet that is really sweet. PVs went up, and I started tearing out the old system. Installed the new system with all new wiring, lightening protection, etc. Then fired it up…problems right off the bat with the batteries. The FNS 3U batteries would simply not function. Two days and 5 phone calls to the battery company later we found out there was a problem with the battery’s BMS software. Took the batteries in to the technician…one battery failed to update, burned another one out.

Another couple of days worth of phone calls with the US office, then phone calls and emails with the techs & managers in China. They had to rewrite the battery BMS software, download it to the US, and then the tech here loaded it into the battery. It worked. But there was still a problem with the batteries talking with the inverter. A week later the software was available to download into the inverter. It worked.

However, about the time you think it is a sunny day once again…ah, no. The batteries were still not performing up to standards…low full charge voltage and discrepancy between the battery charge indicator lights, the actual voltage reading, and the tech spec.

The low full charge voltage problem was explained after about a month from the first purchase…it was a 15 cell battery not an industry standard 16 cell battery. And since each cell is 3.2v, missing a cell was the discrepancy in voltage. And for along time no one in the supply chain knew it was a 15 vs 16 cell battery…and that difference also explained the competitive price point. No one in the company (FNS) was ever able to explain the discrepancy between the battery charge indicator lights, the actual voltage reading, and the tech spec.

AT the time the local dealer assured me they would stand behind the batteries, but, in the subsequent months they have also discontinued selling that line of batteries.

So the FNS 3U & 5U LifePo4 batteries are a “DO NOT BUY!” if you are looking for a trouble-free, industry standard 16-cell LifePo4 battery for your solar system. If you are tech savvy or have a solid working relationship with, and warranty from, your system installation company then they are a decent alternative.

I wouldn’t install them in my system based on what I know and the fact that there are better alternatives out there.

note: Sacred Sun batteries are made by FNS, Sacred Sun is just a private label.

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TRAP: Solar – Growatt Inverter/Charge Controller

The Growatt SPF series of inverters has problems…serious problems if you don’t know how to fix them. The inverter unit also contains an integrated MPPT charge controller built in. And the unit has a great price point for 6kw/240vAC inverter. It can also handle 80a of PV input. Appears to be a perfect choice for off-grid operations on a budget.

But, I have personally installed one of these units for a friend and experienced problems. Later I found out there are known problems with these units, the SPF series. They will sometimes appear to overload within their 6kw/240vAC capacity and simply go off-line. They have also been known to have their integrated charge controller go off-line, without warning, which runs the battery bank down shutting down the system.

Fortunately there appears to be software/firmware upgrades that can remedy these problems. It did on the installation that I accomplished…but it took us time and interaction with the manufacturer.

So be pretty savvy yourself and know how to upgrade the firmware and software…and know how to modify the unit’s settings correctly. Or if someone installed your system for you, make sure they are aware of the problems and know the “fixes” to make. Or, buy a system that isn’t engineered and manufactured in China.

So the unit is usable and like I said…a great price point for the features. Just be aware of the problems. Know what you are getting yourself into.

And of course…one more thing. The Growatt units are marketed in the USA by a company called Growatt USA. It is owned by the parent company located in China, although run in the US by leadership in California. The person in charge in the USA is a nice lady but she lacks technical knowledge. And the lead for US marketing is an Australian who is a nice guy, has technical knowledge, but is lacking ability to resolve/troubleshoot issues relating to the units themselves.

The parent company also owns a lithium battery manufacturing company called FNS.The idea was to have an inverter unit (with integrated MPPT charge controller) and lithium batteries that work and communicate together. Great idea! But they fell short in getting all the bugs worked out before they went to market. More on the batteries tomorrow.

This is a cautionary “Trap” warning…not a “Do Not Buy!” warning. More like “Buy At Your Own Risk & be Prepared to Work Through It” warning.

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Coming Gun Control Legislation

There are approximately 29 gun control bills working their way through the Congressional process. None of which have made it into committee and/or to the floor for a vote. They are all in the “mark-up” or similar stage with the exception of two. One of which is commonly referred to as universal background checks, effectively eliminating all private sales and all private transfers except between spouses. The second allows the FBI to indefinitely delay background check approvals, effectively denying a person’s right to purchase a firearm.

As far as I can tell, collectively all 29 bills are not together as bad as last year’s H.R. 5717…which would not have made it past the Republican controlled Senate. However, give the 2021 Congressional radical leftists time…they are working on it.

First off…ANY federal law that prohibits a person’s right to own a personal weapon is unconstitutional…at least according to the Bill of Rights. And I am 100% behind the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. I hope that makes it clear where I stand on the illegal and unconstitutional moves being made in Congress…and those having already been made in previous Congressional sessions. Any Representative or Senator who votes in favor of any gun control or gun ownership restrictions…have violated their oath they take…

“I do solemnly swear/affirm that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.” Congressional Oat of Office

And so we find ourselves far…very far…removed from our rights, liberties, and freedoms that our Founding Fathers intended us to possess. And possess for what purpose? The Second Amendment was explicitly designed to defend ourselves against tyranny…specifically against tyranny put upon us by a federal government.

And where do we find ourselves today? That is a question for you to answer. But, before you do…you might want to read this article <4th of July – Independence Day>

Now, all that being said, I’ve had a few conversations lately and read a few articles on what people are planning to do; the intentions run from sad to bizarre.

There seems to be some who will “bury” their guns. So I ask them a question…Bury them for what? There doesn’t seem to be a quick or intelligent response to that question…mostly a blank and confused stare. And when they do finally answer…their reasoning is not logical and void of common sense.

Then there is the “sell it now” crowd…those that wish to sell their guns before they become illegal and are confiscated. Most are taking the cash and spending it on a wide variety of items…none of which are “prepper” in nature.

Then there are a few that tell me, “I will put out an old gun for them to confiscate, the rest will be hidden.” Similar to the “bury” crowd, I ask them…Hide them for what? Again their answers are disjointed…and illogical. They tend to think they will somehow then be able to join a massive revolutionary war against tyranny sometime in the future. They seem to miss that they already complied with tyranny and missed the revolutionary boat…by a wide margin.

And a few have told me straight up…I will turn them in. Ouch!

There was only one man that said, “I will not let them take my guns…period!” That man is a veteran, a little older, and was as stalwart in that statement as any I have ever seen. Strangely enough, the only woman I spoke with said a similar thing…”I will not give up my guns”…then she went quiet and just stared at me. I was pleased and proud of both of them.

So let me return to the “bury & hide” crowd…what they heck are they hiding or burying their guns for? Seriously…WHY????  If guns are outlawed and confiscated…then what good is having one hidden or buried? Come on…use commonsense!!!

Oh, I am sure that they are thinking…later we can use them to [fill in the blank]. Bullshit! If they don’t have enough guts, courage, or foundational principles to fight against evil when the thugs come for guns the first time…they sure as hell won’t have any of those admirable character traits to rise up at some date in their fantasy future.

They are lying to themselves…plain and simple. They are looking for the easy way out…the coward’s way out. You either fight evil and tyranny or you give in…there is no inbetween…there is no gray area in this issue. Waiting to implement the Declaration of Independence after gun confiscation is WAY too late.

Consider this…on April 19th 1775 the army decided to confiscate the ammunition supplies of American citizens stored in Concord. The American citizens didn’t tell the army “OK, here it is, go ahead and take it.” Nor did they hide their guns and ammo, offering up their bows & arrows to the army in hopes of appeasing the soldiers. No sir, the American citizens formed up for a defensive action wishing to not engage the military. However, a shot rang out and a battle ensued.

Although the American citizens lost the battle of Lexington early that morning, the military paid a heavy price the remainder of the day as they retreated. And 8 years later brought about independence from a tyrannical oppressive government and issued in the Constitution and Bill of Rights…establishing the most free country to that point in the history of mankind.

That day in April nearly 250 years ago…the brave, the stalwart, the courageous didn’t hide their guns, they didn’t bury their guns, they didn’t give up their guns. That early morning…they stood against tyranny, they stood tall, they resisted the urge to give in to despotism…they resisted. They didn’t give in, they didn’t give up. And 8 years later gave their children, grandchildren, and many later generations freedom that had not been seen before in the history of the world.

So what is the answer? I can’t answer that for you personally because I have no idea what your individual circumstances or beliefs are.

A couple thoughts…

  1. Clarify where you stand on the Second Amendment. For me it is clear…no law, not a single one, to restrict a person’s right to buy, own, or transfer guns/ammo/mags is Constitutional. No tax on them, no infringement…NOTHING! The Second Amendment is clear as a bell…and our Founding Fathers knew what they were doing and what we would have to fight against if we didn’t control the government to begin with. I will stand with the Founding Fathers!
  2. There are some good gun rights organizations out there…support them with your time and money. And NO, I am not recommending the N.R.A…because they have caved in on the major gun control issues in the last 100 years*. Don’t doubt me on this!! An NRA President even said he saw no reason for a person to carry a concealed gun and didn’t support the right to do so**. Don’t give a dime to the NRA!! I like Gun Owners of America the best. <https://www.gunowners.org/> They are top notch and staunchly support the 2nd Amendment and stand tall where the NRA caves in.
  3. Support any and all 2nd Amendment sanctuary movements; city, county, and state.
  4. Contact your Representative and Senators, state and federal, to voice your unconditional opposition to ANY attempt at gun control. Make it clear you are willing to back up your position with time and money.
  5. Make sure you are ready to stand behind your convictions when the time comes. No wavering, no compromise, and know what you will do when the time comes. Then do it!

There are a lot of gun owners out there, some of them self-described patriots, who talk tough, who think they are some bad ass, who claim this or that. If any one of them speaks about hiding or burying a gun to avoid confiscation…then they are BS artists and not to be trusted. Or, they have been taken in by the idiots and cowards club.

The only reason to bury/hide guns/ammo/mags is for a “cache” for use if your main guns are no longer available to you (i.e. gunfight, have to abandon them, lost them, a back-up, or for resupply). The only way to prevent gun confiscation is to fight the legislation preemptively…and should that fail…fight it as our Founding Fathers did and who also provided us the means and authorization to do so through the Declaration of Independence.

I did a study about 10 years ago concerning gun confiscation. The premise of which was simple, guns were outlawed, confiscation was ordered, and all law enforcement (federal/state/local) would be involved in forced gun confiscation via raids at people’s homes and businesses. LEOs would operate in 10-man units and conduct two raids per day. I used an average of 1 casualty per day per team incurred during their raids. Remember, a casualty doesn’t mean fatality, it means a person is lost for continuing service after the injury is incurred. But yes, it could also mean fatality.

I used the numbers of all LEOs in the country participating in the raids. I set unit combat effectiveness at 50%. Unit cohesiveness and morale was not initially factored in.

The results were simple…gun confiscation raids would become unsustainable after 16 days. Meaning there was a 75% casualty rate within those 16 days. Now, factoring in unit cohesiveness and individual morale…those raids could stop well before the 16 day time-frame. And I believe there would be some parts of the country where state LEOs would not participate, and a large number of rural areas where local LEOs would not participate. And I believe there are a few locations where local LEOs might assist citizens in the resistance to gun confiscation.

I think those numbers are telling…whether they are accurate or not is another story, I believe they are. I think that unit cohesiveness and morale could hugely affect the numbers in favor of citizens…but I don’t have the tools to make those calculations. But resistance to gun confiscation would mean the tyranny could last no more than 16 days, maybe less.

But the downside to those numbers is this…should they hold true and a radical leftist regime such as Biden/Harris is leading the confiscation movement…the military could be called in. Should the military be called in, and they cooperate, it is game over… guns are gone. Maybe not in 1 day, maybe not in 16 days…but they are gone. And I see no reason to believe that the military (i.e. National Guard Military Police or regular units) would not cooperate.

The other proven option is a leftist method that is considerably more effective and efficient in getting 80 – 90% of American guns confiscated…BuyBack! If the federal government offered a buyback program during a grace period once guns are outlawed, then you will see the country virtually disarmed. Then only those most committed to the Constitution would still have a gun. If that would be the case, and then LEO raids commenced on the remaining holdout gun owners…well, it could be a far different outcome than the one I outlined earlier. Implement a paid informer program along with a buyback and the confiscation numbers increase significantly.

And I honestly don’t think there would be more than 5% of the American population that would “rise up” to resist those kinds of programs or any gun confiscation law/operation. And 5% would not be any challenge at all for the US military. Game over…Constitutional rights/liberties/freedoms gone! The elites win. Of course there are virtually endless scenarios, but they are similar in nature and outcome.

So I guess there is plenty to think about…what will you do…how will you do it…with whom will you align yourself…what are you willing to sacrifice.

You might want to be thinking this through…soon.

The best time to decide might not be when there is a knock at your door…or worse.Normalcy Bias - Man with head in the sand

And if you run into some clown claiming they will just hide or bury all their guns…ask them “why?”…and ask “what is their endgame?” It should be entertaining at the very least. I think I know what they are really hiding in the ground 🙂

* Gun Rights Elimination that NRA leadership supported, didn’t oppose, or helped write:

  • Uniform Firearms Act
  • The National Firearms Act of 1934
  • The Gun Control Act of 1968 (NRA formally endorsed it!)

** Karl Frederick, the NRA’s president, said, “I have never believed in the general practice of carrying weapons… I think it should be sharply restricted and only under licenses.” He further stated his objection to the Second Amendment: “Protection for guns lies in an enlightened public sentiment and in intelligent legislative action…It is not to be found in the Constitution.”



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No reproduction or other use of this content 
without expressed written permission from AHTrimble.com
See Content Use Policy for more information.

Workman Magnetic Mobile Antenna (KRDB) – Fix the Problem

note: originally published in May 2016

I wrote an article reviewing the model KRDB Workman Magnetic Mobile Antenna on 8/24/2020 (yesterday). In the article I mentioned two things –

  • Crappy antenna and DO NOT BUY IT!
  • A piece of plastic had broken and exposed the antenna wire and the internal base of the mount.

This article is going to show you –

  • How to fix the problem if you have one of these antennas.
  • How to reinforce the base if your antenna hasn’t broken yet.

Let’s review the problem…

The piece that broke off on all 3 of the antennas is almost exactly the same.

The problem comes from –

  1. Extremely poor quality plastic.
  2. Extremely poor base design.
  3. Antenna wire moving around and stressing the plastic.

So I figure to fix the problem where it already exists I have to –

  1. Fill in the hole that exposes the internals of the base.
  2. Cover the exposed antenna wire.
  3. Stabilize the wire.

Enter Liquid Electrical Tape!  Take a minute and read these two articles, they are short and will only take a minute –

So, I figure the best way to solve all three of the problems is to use liquid tape.

I forced liquid tape into the base of the antenna and then put a small amount over the exposed antenna wire.

Once the first application was dry, I added another layer of liquid tape.

And then another layer of liquid tape.

Now, you probably don’t own the Workman antenna if you are one of my regular website visitors. But, I wanted to show you the “fix” anyways. I also want to give you general ideas on how to fix things, whatever it is. When emergencies, disasters, or grid-down hits you need to be able to fix just about anything, or know someone who can. You need to be able to analyze what the problem is and then make whatever is broken work again.

Remember…liquid tape is your friend!

Related Articles –
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No reproduction or other use of this content 
without expressed written permission from AHTrimble.com
See Content Use Policy for more information.

Workman Magnetic Mobile Antenna (KRDB)

I originally purchased several of these back in 2013 based on some good reviews that the antenna had gotten. When I first started to use it I thought it looked a little “boxy” and “put together with parts” vs. “designed and built.” But, I thought I would give it a try. Oooppppssss…

Now you're talking!

Now you’re talking!

About a year ago I noticed that one of the units had a broken piece of plastic on the base. I thought I might have damaged it in some way. I knew it wasn’t due to exposure to the elements because it has been stored for use when needed. That need hasn’t developed yet. I was disappointed to be sure and I set the antenna aside to work on it at some later date.

Today I went to do some antenna testing of the Baofeng UV-5RA radio vs. the Baofeng UV-5RMHP radio. I got a variety of antennas to compare SWR and power to see which radio was more efficient. When I retrieved the magnetic mount Workman KRDB antenna I saw that it had a broken piece no the base as well. I got the original Workman, and sure enough, the Antenna Workman mobile antennabroken pieces matched each other. I had one more of the Workman antennas and it too had the same broken piece.

This antenna is made by Electronic Products, Inc.. The company is listed as being located in Delta, Ohio but the antenna is made in China. Yeah, big surprise there!

Now that shows a clear design and engineering flaw as well as very poor quality materials. So now I have to look for a way to not lose my $105.00 worth of antennas. I am working on a “fix” and will keep you posted.

Piece of the base breaks off to expose the entire insides of the base.

Piece of the base breaks off to expose the entire insides of the base.

Based on just the design, engineering, quality of materials, and the fact that 3 out of 3 have broken…yeah, no doubt about it.

The piece that broke off on all 3 of the antennas is almost exactly the same.

The piece that broke off on all 3 of the antennas is almost exactly the same.

“Do Not Buy!”

Thumbs Down ReviewNote: “Fix” article <click here>

2009 - 2020 Copyright © AHTrimble.com ~ All rights reserved
No reproduction or other use of this content 
without expressed written permission from AHTrimble.com
See Content Use Policy for more information.